gregjeanmart

9 min read - Posted 29 Jul 20

(6/8) Self-host Pi-Hole on Kubernetes and block ads and trackers at the network level


This article is part of the series Build your very own self-hosting platform with Raspberry Pi and Kubernetes
  1. Introduction
  2. Install Raspbian Operating-System and prepare the system for Kubernetes
  3. Install and configure a Kubernetes cluster with k3s to self-host applications
  4. Deploy NextCloud on Kuberbetes: The self-hosted Dropbox
  5. Self-host your Media Center On Kubernetes with Plex, Sonarr, Radarr, Transmission and Jackett
  6. Self-host Pi-Hole on Kubernetes and block ads and trackers at the network level
  7. Self-host your password manager with Bitwarden
  8. Deploy Prometheus and Grafana to monitor a Kubernetes cluster


Introduction

Pi Hole is a network-wide ad blocker. In a typical home environment, this can cut out almost all ads to all devices in your home, without having to install an ad blocker on every single device. Technically Pi-Hole acts as a DNS sinkhole which filters out unwanted results using a blacklist domains list. Pi-Hole also offers a great admin interface to configure and analyse your network traffic (DNS, DHCP, Black/White list, regex, etc.).

article image

In this new article, we will learn how to deploy Pi-Hole on a Kubernetes self-hosting platform.



Prerequisite

In order to run entirely the tutorial, we will need:

  • A running Kubernetes cluster (see previous articles if you haven't set this up yet)
  • Access to your router admin console to configure Pi-Hole as DNS or disable DHCP (replaced by Pi-Hole)


Namespace

We are going to isolate all the Kubernetes objects related to Pi-Hole in the namespace pihole.

To create a namespace, run the following command:

$ kubectl create namespace pihole


Persistence

The first step consists in setting up a volume to store the Pi-Hole config files and data. If you followed the previous articles to install and configure a self-hosting platform using RaspberryPi and Kubernetes, you remember we have on each worker a NFS client pointing to a SSD on /mnt/ssd.

1. Deploy the Persistent Volume (PV)

The Persistent Volume specify the name, the size, the location and the access modes of the volume:

  • The name of the PV is pihole
  • The size allocated is 500MB
  • The location is /mnt/ssd/pihole
  • The access is ReadWriteOnce

Create the following file and apply it to the k8 cluster.

# pihole.persistentvolume.yml
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolume
metadata:
  name: "pihole"
  labels:
    type: "local"
spec:
  storageClassName: "manual"
  capacity:
    storage: "500Mi"
  accessModes:
    - ReadWriteOnce
  hostPath:
    path: "/mnt/ssd/pihole"
---
$ kubectl apply -f pihole.persistentvolume.yml
persistentvolume/pihole created

You can verify the PV exists with the following command:

$ kubectl get pv

NAME            CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS      CLAIM   STORAGECLASS   REASON   AGE
pihole          500Mi      RWO            Retain           Available           manual                  34s

2. Create the Persistent Volume Claim (PVC)

The Persistent Volume Claim is used to map a Persistent Volume to a deployment or stateful set. Unlike the PV, the PVC belongs to a namespace.

Create the following file and apply it to the k8 cluster.

# pihole.persistentvolumeclaim.yml
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
metadata:
  namespace: "pihole"
  name: "pihole"
spec:
  storageClassName: "manual"
  accessModes:
    - ReadWriteOnce
  resources:
    requests:
      storage: "500Mi"
---
$ kubectl apply -f pihole.persistentvolumeclaim.yml
persistentvolumeclaim/pihole created

You can verify the PVC exists with the following command:

$ kubectl get pvc -n pihole

NAME            STATUS   VOLUME          CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
pihole          Bound    pihole          500Mi      RWO            manual         26s


Deployment

In the next part, we are now going to deploy Pi-Hole using a modified version open-source Helm chart pihole-kubernetes.

1. Install the repo

$ helm repo add mojo2600 https://mojo2600.github.io/pihole-kubernetes/ && helm repo update

2. Create a secret to store Pi-Hole admin password

Replace <ADMIN_PASSWORD> by the password of your choice. This password will be used to connect to the Pi-Hole administration interface.

$ kubectl create secret generic pihole-secret \
    --from-literal password=<ADMIN_PASSWORD> \
    --namespace pihole

3. Download the Chart values of the chart locally

Run the following command to download the Chart values into the local file pihole.values.yml.

$ helm show values mojo2600/pihole >> pihole.values.yml

If you open the file, you will see the default configuration values to setup Pi-Hole. Instead of using the flag --set property=value like before, we will use the file pihole.values.yml to make all the changes.


4. Update the values

We now need to update a few properties before installing the Helm chart. Open the file pihole.values.yml and change the following properties (replace the information surrounded by with your information).

# pihole.values.yml

(...)

persistentVolumeClaim:
  # set to true to use pvc
  enabled: true # Change to true
  # set to true to use you own pvc
  existingClaim: "pihole" # Name of the persistent volume claim

(...)

extraEnvVars:
  TZ: "Europe/London" # Timezone
  ServerIP: 192.168.0.22 # Add the master node IP only if your configure `hostNetwork: true` (next paragraph, point b only)

(...)

# Use an existing secret for the admin password.
admin:
  existingSecret: "pihole-secret" # Reference to the secret created step 2
  passwordKey: "password"

The network config might be different if your need to get DHCP working with Pi-hole.

a. I can override my router default DNS config

# pihole.values.yml

(...)

serviceTCP:
  type: LoadBalancer # Configure MetalLB to used a dedicated "virtual" IP to expose the DNS server
  annotations:
    metallb.universe.tf/allow-shared-ip: pihole-svc

serviceUDP:
  type: LoadBalancer # Configure MetalLB to used a dedicated "virtual" IP to expose the DNS server
  annotations:
    metallb.universe.tf/allow-shared-ip: pihole-svc

b. I can't override my router DNS config and I need to enable DHCP on Pi-Hole (disable on my router) to force the devices to use Pi-Hole as DNS.

In this case, we are going to use the flag hostNetwork=true and privileged=true to let the pod use the node network with root privilege which will enable DHCP through network broadcast on port 67 (more info).

# pihole.values.yml

(...)

serviceTCP:
  type: ClusterIP

serviceUDP:
  type: ClusterIP

(...)

hostNetwork: "true" # The pod uses the host network rather than k8s network (to perform a network broadcast on port 67 / DHCP) See  https://docs.pi-hole.net/docker/DHCP/#docker-pi-hole-with-host-networking-mode
privileged: "true" # Give root permission to the pod on the host
webHttp: "55080" # Random HTTP port to prevent clash (because the pod will be on the host network)
webHttps: "55443" # Random HTTPS port to prevent clash (because the pod will be on the host network)

4. Install the Chart

In the part, we will install the Helm chart under the namespace pihole with pihole.values.yml as configuration file.

$ helm install pihole mojo2600/pihole \
  --namespace pihole \
  --values pihole.values.yml

After a couple of minutes, check if the pod and service is up and running:

$ kubectl get pods -n pihole -o wide

NAME                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP             NODE          NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
pihole-695f4bd7c8-xwswq   1/1     Running   1          45m   192.168.0.22   kube-master   <none>           <none>
$ kubectl get services -n pihole -o wide

NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                 AGE   SELECTOR
pihole-tcp   ClusterIP   10.43.35.133   <none>        80/TCP,443/TCP,53/TCP   45m   app=pihole,release=pihole
pihole-udp   ClusterIP   10.43.96.245   <none>        53/UDP,67/UDP           45m   app=pihole,release=pihole


Ingress

To access Pi-Hole admin, we are now going to deploy an Ingress, responsible of making accessible a service from outside the cluster by mapping an internal service:port to a host. To choose a host, we need to configure a DNS like we did for NextCloud "nextcloud.<domain.com>" in the previous article. However, unlike NextCloud, Pi-Hole have no reason to be exposed on the Internet, we can pick a host that will be resolved internally to our Nginx proxy (available at 192.168.0.240 : LoadBalancer IP). The simplest solution is to use nip.io which allows us to map an IP (in our case 192.168.0.240) to a hostname without touching /etc/hosts or configuring a DNS. Basically it resolves <anything>.<ip>.nip.io by <ip> without requiring anything else, Magic !

1. Create the file pihole.ingress.yml

Create the following Ingress config file pihole.ingress.yml to map the route / to Pi-Hole HTTP service:

# pihole.ingress.yml
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  namespace: pihole
  name: pihole-ingress
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "nginx"
spec:
  rules:
  - host: pihole.192.168.0.240.nip.io
    http:
      paths:
        - path: /
          backend:
            serviceName: pihole-tcp
            servicePort: 8000
---

2. Deploy the ingress

Deploy the Ingress by applying the file pihole.ingress.yaml.

$ kubectl apply -f pihole.ingress.yaml
ingress.extensions/pihole-ingress created


Result

You can now access Pi-Hole via pihole.192.168.0.240.nip.io/admin.

article image

Click on Login on the left menu and enter the password configured earlier in pihole.values.yml.

If you configured Pi-Hole to be used as DHCP server, you need to go to Settings / DHCP, enable DHCP, configure the IP range and the IP of your network router.

article image



Created with Sketch.Content is"CC-BY-SA 4.0" licensed
Article Author

Grégoire Jeanmart

Kauri Software Engineer

27

3

7

0 Comments
Related Articles
(4/8) Deploy NextCloud on Kuberbetes: The self-hosted Dropbox

This article is part of the series Build your very own self-hosting platform with Raspberry Pi and Kubernetes Introduction Install Raspbian Operating-System and

(7/8) Self-host your password manager with Bitwarden

This article is part of the series Build your very own self-hosting platform with Raspberry Pi and Kubernetes Introduction Install Raspbian Operating-System and