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POSTED 14 Sep 2019 17:55

Interacting with smart contracts from GETH's Simulated Backend

ethereum
go-programming-language
geth
abigen
golang
testing
solidity
AUTHOR
Dave Appleton

I am in the process of releasing my very "hacky" golang test environment that deep links into the go-ethereum code base.

This is the next in the series…..

Now you have a simulated ethereum network running it is time to see the EVM in action.

GETH comes with a really useful tool to help you integrate your GO code with solidity smart contracts.

Introducing ABIGEN

ABIGEN creates a wrapper around your smart contract to help with most interactions that you could want to perform.

I usually store my contracts in a sub folder with an appropriate name.

In this case I am building a test for the Devcon 5 auction contract. I will place it in the contracts folder.

You can find the actual auction contract deployed here

https://etherscan.io/address/0x096bE08D7d1CaeEA6583eab6b75a0f5EaaB012a5#code

If we put that source code into auction.sol in the contracts folder you would create the wrapper with :

abigen --sol contracts/auction.sol --pkg contracts --out contracts/auction.go

The contract's name is auction so ABIGEN will have created a function called DeployAuction

You will notice the constructor needs some date parameters, an amount and a wallet address, lets create a helper function first.

func chkerr(err error) {
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Println(err)
        os.Exit(1)
    }
}

// I like British dates !
func getTime(dateStr string) *big.Int {
    t, err := time.Parse("02/01/06", dateStr)
    chkerr(err)
    return big.NewInt(t.Unix())
}

now create the constructor variables

    startBids := getTime("13/09/19")
    endBids := getTime("15/09/19")
    startReveal := endBids
    endReveal := getTime("17/09/19")
    minimumBid, _ := etherUtils.StrToEther("4.7")
    wallet, _ := memorykeys.GetAddress("wallet")

and now deploy the contract…

    bankTx, _ := memorykeys.GetTransactor("banker")
    auctionAddress, tx, auctionContract, err := contracts.DeployAuction(bankTx, client, startBids, endBids, startReveal, endReveal minimumBid, *wallet)
    chkerr(err)
    fmt.Println(auctionAddress.Hex(), tx.Hash().Hex())

We need a bound transactor (see memorykeys post) Then we send the transaction to deploy the contract returning

  1. the address of the contract
  2. a bound object to allow us to transact with it (once deployed)
  3. the transaction object
  4. an error object (as usual)

we can now cause that transaction to be mined

    client.Commit()

then we can call a method in the contract, let's check the minimum bid

    min, err := auctionContract.MinimumBid(nil)
    chkerr(err)
    fmt.Println("minumum bid is ", etherUtils.EtherToStr(min))

running testAuction.go we will get randomly assigned addresses but the minimum bid will be clearly seen to be 4.7

$ go run testAuction.go
0x8095E4E397c8BEDffE7d2c8E3EaA30F646aab6dC 0x24fa2c113beab3eecf2129ef868e9121c3a7d8f7e084c6c66fbd10cb67b680a5
4.700000000000000000

Bonus - Time in a bottle

The Devcon5 Auction contract is a time dependent contract. There are three phases:

  1. Bidding Period
  2. Reveal Period
  3. Withdrawal Period

If we want to test such a contract we need to be able to speed the blockchain clock to arrive at some specific times.

Getting the simulated blockchain's time

func currentTime() uint64 {
    client, err := getClient()
    chkerr(err)
    block := client.Blockchain().CurrentBlock()
    return block.Time()
}

Jumping forward in time

My small contribution to the go-ethereum codebase is the AdjustTime function in the simulated back end.

func jumpTo(newTime *big.Int) {
    client, err := getClient()
    chkerr(err)
    now := client.Blockchain().CurrentBlock().Time()
    target := newTime.Uint64()
    if now >= target {
        return
    }
    err = client.AdjustTime(time.Duration(target-now) * time.Second)
    chkerr(err)
    client.Commit()
}

we can also create a function to report if bidding is open

func isBiddingOpen(auction *contracts.Auction) {
    biddingOpen, err := auction.InBidding(nil)
    chkerr(err)
    state := "IS NOT"
    if biddingOpen {
        state = "IS"
    }
    fmt.Println("Bidding", state, "open")
}

So this allows us to jump to the start of bidding for testing.

    fmt.Println("time:",currentTime())
    isBiddingOpen(auctionContract)
    jumpTo(startBids)
    fmt.Println("time:",currentTime())
    isBiddingOpen(auctionContract)
$ go run testAuction.go
0x06cfB9BD9a3093603EFf47BC0679A729AF6a884c 0x0bf7dd3223934f955981816fda317e7fa6b669252c5a5695c71d3d82451b604f
minumum bid is  4.700000000000000000
time : 10
Bidding IS NOT open
time : 1568332810
Bidding IS open

The complete code

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "log"
    "math/big"
    "os"
    "time"

    "./contracts"

    "github.com/DaveAppleton/etherUtils"
    "github.com/DaveAppleton/memorykeys"
    "github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/accounts/abi/bind/backends"
    "github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/core"
)

var baseClient *backends.SimulatedBackend

func getClient() (client *backends.SimulatedBackend, err error) {
    if baseClient != nil {
        return baseClient, nil
    }
    funds, _ := etherUtils.StrToEther("10000.0")
    bankerAddress, err := memorykeys.GetAddress("banker")
    if err != nil {
        return nil, err
    }
    baseClient = backends.NewSimulatedBackend(core.GenesisAlloc{
        *bankerAddress: {Balance: funds},
    }, 8000000)
    return baseClient, nil
}

func chkerr(err error) {
    if err != nil {
        fmt.Println(err)
        os.Exit(1)
    }
}

func getTime(dateStr string) *big.Int {
    t, err := time.Parse("02/01/06", dateStr)
    chkerr(err)
    return big.NewInt(t.Unix())
}

func currentTime() uint64 {
    client, err := getClient()
    chkerr(err)
    block := client.Blockchain().CurrentBlock()
    return block.Time()
}

func jumpTo(newTime *big.Int) {
    client, err := getClient()
    chkerr(err)
    now := client.Blockchain().CurrentBlock().Time()
    target := newTime.Uint64()
    if now >= target {
        return
    }
    err = client.AdjustTime(time.Duration(target-now) * time.Second)
    chkerr(err)
    client.Commit()
}

func isBiddingOpen(auction *contracts.Auction) {
    biddingOpen, err := auction.InBidding(nil)
    chkerr(err)
    state := "IS NOT"
    if biddingOpen {
        state = "IS"
    }
    fmt.Println("Bidding", state, "open")
}

func main() {
    client, err := getClient()
    if err != nil {
        log.Fatal(err)
    }
    startBids := getTime("13/09/19")
    endBids := getTime("15/09/19")
    startReveal := endBids
    endReveal := getTime("17/09/19")
    minimumBid, _ := etherUtils.StrToEther("4.7")
    wallet, _ := memorykeys.GetAddress("wallet")
    bankTx, _ := memorykeys.GetTransactor("banker")
    auctionAddress, tx, auctionContract, err := contracts.DeployAuction(bankTx, client, startBids, endBids, startReveal, endReveal, minimumBid, *wallet)
    chkerr(err)
    fmt.Println(auctionAddress.Hex(), tx.Hash().Hex())
    client.Commit()
    min, err := auctionContract.MinimumBid(nil)
    chkerr(err)
    fmt.Println("minumum bid is ", etherUtils.EtherToStr(min))
    fmt.Println("time :", currentTime())
    isBiddingOpen(auctionContract)
    jumpTo(startBids)
    fmt.Println("time :", currentTime())
    isBiddingOpen(auctionContract)
}
Outline
  • Introducing ABIGEN

  • Bonus - Time in a bottle

  • The complete code